The Garrett Hardin Society


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The Tragedy of the Commons

A General Statement of Hardin's Tragedy of the Commons, by Herschel Elliott.

The Tragedy of the Commons, discussion by Garrett Hardin, The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

The Tragedy of the Commons. Cover Story article by Joanna Burger, Michael Gochfeld, Environment, December 1998. Includes related article on Garrett Hardin's tragedy of the commons thesis.

Tragedy of the Commons described, Encyclopedia of Environmental Science.

Tragedy of the Commons Revisited by Beryl Crowe (1969), reprinted in Managing the Commons, by Garrett Hardin and John Baden.

Tragedy of the Commons website

Tragedy of the Commons, Science Magazine special issue, 12 December, 2003. Also see Science Magazine web resources on the Tragedy of the Commons.


Commons - related links

A Brief Bibliographical Survey on Common Property Resources and Community Management of Natural Resources Gopal K. Kadekodi and Seema S. Hegde, December 2002 (PDF format)

Garrett Hardin's Three Laws of Human Ecology (Hardin, 1993), compiled in Laws Relating to Sustainability by Prof. Albert A. Bartlett

Emerging Commons and Tragic Institutions, by Brigham Daniels, September 13, 2007 (abstract)

Establishing Rules and Conventions for the Infrastructure: The 'Tragedy of the Unmanaged Commons' as a Determinate Factor by Rob Reilly and Barry Kort, M.I.T. Media Laboratory

How Inexorable is the Tragedy of the Commons? - Institutional Arrangements for Changing the Stucture of Social Dilemmas, by Elinor Ostrom, Indiana University. Also see Coping with Tragedies of the Commons: Local Lessons, Global Challenges, by Elinor Ostrom, Indiana University, February 25, 2000

Markets and their Failure: Reciprocal Interactions and the Problem of the Commons by Partha Dasgupta: 'The Economics of the Environment', Proceedings of the British Academy, 1996

Ostrom 'revisits the commons' in 'Science'

Stalking the wild taboo - Garrett Hardin section

The Commons Trap and Fishery Deliberations, by Dr. Richard Collins, Institute for Environmental Negotiation University of Virginia (PDF format)

The Economics of Fisheries, National Center for Policy Analysis

The Fatal Freedom, by Jay Hanson, 1997; comments on the Tragedy of the Commons

The Republicans and the Tragedy of the Commons, The Ethical Spectacle 1996

The Tragedy of No Common Sense by Peter E. Hendrickson

The Tragedy of the Common Forest by Kelly Andersson, Oregon Daily Emerald, 1996

The Tragedy of the Advertising Commons by Matthew Syrett,, September 21, 2004

The Triumph of the Commons: Governing 21st Century Regions, Alliance for Regional Stewardship, October, 2001. Integrates commons concept into regional planning (PDF format).

The Unmanaged Commons - A Major Challenge for Sustainability Ethics by John Cairns, The Social Contract, Winter 2003


Reviews and comments on Garrett Hardin's writings

(Also see reviews of books by Garrett Hardin and Tributes to Garrett Hardin).

Chronic Famine and the Immorality of Food Aid: A Bow to Garrett Hardin by Joseph Fletcher University of Virginia, Population and Environment, Spring 1991

Garrett Hardin -- Salute to a Prophet, by Walter Youngquist, The Social Contract (Fall 2001)

Lifeboat Ethics - review by Allen Stairs, 1997

Living within Limits - notes

Summary of 'Carrying Capacity as an Ethical Concept', by J. Woodward

The 'Carrying Capacity' Equivocation, by William Aiken, Social Theory and Practice, v.6(1), Spring 1980

The Revolutionary Import of Garrett Hardin's Work by Herschel Elliot, July, 2003


Other links

Prof. Al Bartlett website - on the impossibility of exponential growth.

Laws, Hypotheses, Observations and Predictions relating to Sustainability, by Albert Bartlett. Builds upon Garrett Hardin's Three Laws of Human Ecology.

Now we are six, E Magazine cover story on overpopulation, by Jim Motavalli, July-August 1999.

Commons sense - Why it still pays to study medieval English landholding and Sahelian nomadism, article in The Economist, July 31, 2008.

Contact us if you have additional links to suggest.